MA PhD FGS
Dr Alan Herbert is a hydrogeologist with over 25 years experience of groundwater resource assessment and heat and contaminant transport modelling. Alan has considerable modelling and mathematical expertise applied to ground source energy problems through research and lecturing, where the development of models to address heat transport was a particular interest. Recent work has included support for both regulators and developers in the design of large commercial ground source energy projects in London. He has successfully led projects conducted on all major UK aquifers and dealing with low permeability media.
Andrew gained a Masters degree in Sustainable Water Management from Lancaster University and has experience in quantitative and qualitative report writing. He has been involved in compiling reports for clients at ESI and has gained a good knowledge of data processing and GIS systems.
BSc MSc FGS
Andrew Tait has 10 years of experience as a hydrogeologist and project manager with a background in land quality assessment, quarry impact assessment and water resources studies. He has worked on a broad range of projects in both the UK and Ireland with his technical roles including fieldwork and drilling supervision, design and implementation of site investigation programmes, contaminated land risk assessment and groundwater resource assessment. Andy has extensive experience of carrying out hydrogeological impact assessments for quarries through the development of a robust conceptual model and the identification of potential impacts on relevant receptors, for which appropriate mitigation measures are proposed.
BSc, MSc (Eng)
Technical Director - Land Group
Andy Singleton is an experienced hydrogeologist and project manager/director of 15 years who has worked on a wide range of projects in the UK and abroad, specialising in contaminant and water resource hydrogeology and environmental risk assessment. Andy has a depth of experience in field hydrogeology relating to both water supply and contaminated land investigations. As such he is fully familiar with the design, planning and implementation of site investigation programmes, ranging from the large-scale investigation of residential properties located on former industrial land, to the design and drilling supervision of groundwater abstraction boreholes.
Senior Consultant - Sustainability Group
Antonio Gennarini is a fully qualified applied geologist with a strong background in geology and hydrogeology. Since joining ESI he has worked on a variety of contaminated land and water resources projects, actively managing many of them. He is actively involved in the development of many conceptual models due to his strength in geology. Major projects include management of low flow projects of behalf of water companies, active role in conceptualisation and reporting on licence exempt sites for the Environment Agency and other low flow projects. Most of the low flows projects that Antonio has worked on include wetland areas classified as Sites of Special Scientific Interest or Special Areas of Conservation.
AodhÃn has completed an MSc in Hydrogeology following a BAI in Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering. She was a new member of the Water Group team in 2012 and to date has contributed to numerical analysis for a number of ESI projects. These include low flow assessments and conceptual model development. AodhÃn is a confident user of Geographical Information Systems (GIS).
Barnaby graduated in geology from the University of Edinburgh in 1993, and was awarded a Masters degree in hydrogeology from the University of Birmingham in 1995. After working on the Environment Agency’s groundwater protection zone project in 1997, Barnaby worked on numerous contaminated land and geotechnical investigations before concentrating on groundwater modelling. From 2000 Barnaby gained international experience firstly in Central Asia and India on water resources and irrigation projects and then in New Zealand for over 6 years working on complex water supply, regional water resources, dewatering and storm water and wastewater disposal work. Returning to the UK in 2011 he subsequently became involved in a UKWIR research project and the Environmental Impact Assessment for HS2. Barnaby also took on the management role for a stream of groundwater business with Anglian Water.
BA MSc CGeol
Principal Consultant - Water Group
Cecilia Young is an experienced hydrogeologist with a particular focus on water resources. During the 16 years of her professional experience she has worked on projects throughout the whole of the UK carrying out studies in a wide variety of hydrogeological settings. More recently her work has focussed on projects within the Midlands Region primarily for Severn Trent Water Ltd and the Environment Agency. She has a great depth of experience in the assessment of potential impacts of existing water supplies, in particular on low flow catchments, and on SSSI and wetland sites. She has also had considerable involvement in the development of groundwater supplies, including investigative drilling and testing and borehole completion, and is experienced in groundwater modelling. She has been involved in the CAMS assessment process and has experience of the RAM framework. Cecilia also has considerable experience in the landfill sector, and has carried out a number of landfill risk assessments including submission of PPC permit applications, and ongoing permit reviews.
BSc (Hons) FGS
Chris has provided professional services for quarry and landfill operators across the UK, and has been involved in a wide range of environmental and geoscience projects. He has a detailed understanding of prevailing hydrogeological research themes as well as emerging commercial technologies and regulation. Chris has led field & laboratory investigations and the use of a range of hydrogeological conceptual modeling packages to assess contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface as well as bespoke in-house modeling software and analytical solutions.
BSc MSc FGS
Project Consultant - Water Group
Chrystina Bemment is a qualified hydrogeologist with a range of experience gained over 11 years. Projects include regional groundwater modelling, low flow investigations, risk assessments, landfill PPC applications, site investigation work, management of complex datasets for input into regional scale groundwater models, preparation and presentation of professional training courses to the environmental industry. Her MSc project investigated the effect of river catchment characteristics on groundwater catchments of river tributaries. This project focused on a specific river catchment which was researched and modelled with MODFLOW; MODPATH was then used to delineate the catchments and to investigate the impacts of catchment variables on the estimated groundwater catchment to different order tributaries of a major river.
Emma Farren is an MSc qualified hydrogeologist with 4 years of experience in complex groundwater modelling. Emma's work has included supporting Expert Witness projects, a number of regional scale flow models, source protection zone updates and local transport models for the Environment Agency. She is experienced in the accurate estimation of recharge using distributed recharge codes. Emma has also worked on numerous catchment scale low-flow investigations including helping to develop novel approaches for integrating flow and ecological data to derive robust flow targets for streams impacted by Public Water Supply abstraction. Her MSc Thesis at the University of Birmingham was a field- and laboratory-based research project investigating the natural attenuation of chromium via microbial metal reduction in the hyporheic zone.
BSc, MSc, PhD
Hanan Karam completed her PhD in Environmental Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2012. Her thesis described the processes of seawater circulation in coastal aquifers. She has a broad experience in numerical modelling and data analysis, as well as in implementing field studies to investigate groundwater flow and chemistry. She recently joined ESI’s Sustainable Development Group.
BA MSc CGeol
Heather Streetly is a very experienced hydrogeologist with strong groundwater modelling skills. During the 12 years of her professional experience she has undertaken modelling projects in a wide variety of different geological settings. These include the development of regional models to define wellfield protection zones for the three major wellfields in Oman, the development of a multi-layered model to represent the complex drift aquifer and underlying sandstone at the Drigg Site, Cumbria, and involvement with development of regional groundwater models for the Permo Triassic Sandstone of Bromsgrove, East Shropshire, Lichfield and the West Midlands for the Environment Agency. She made a significant contribution to the development of the conceptual model for the north east Magnesian Limestone for the EA. Heather has become experienced in the use of various methods for calculating recharge and runoff, including the FAO methodology. Heather has developed several detailed groundwater models of the central London area with subsequent heat transport modelling for open loop ground source cooling schemes in the Chalk.
BSc MSc MCIWEM
Helen is a hydrologist with extensive experience in the regulatory industry (Environment Agency) and environmental consultancy. She has worked in water resources planning and water resources hydrogeology in the National Rivers Authority Thames Region, and then returned to the Environment Agency Thames Region to work in the water resource and contaminated land groundwater area after gaining 6 years of consultancy experience in California, USA. Helen has experience in groundwater resource evaluation, hydrogeological characterization, water resource legislation and groundwater modelling.
Henry has a background in Environmental Science and is knowledgeable in the fields of environmental impact assessments, climate change and environmental law and legislation. Henry is very capable numerically and has applied this in the design and manipulation of numerous environmental and hydrological models, as well as assessing aquifer properties by inverse modelling using pumping test data. He has practical experience in hydrometry and is well versed with the operation of stage and flow gauging apparatus. He has also conducted environmental impact assessments for municipal water bodies in inner city settings.
Isabelle has a Master degree in Hydrology-Hydrogeology, she joined the ESI’s Water Group in 2012 and to date has contributed to numerical analysis to a number of ESI projects. These include low flow assessments and numerical model development. She has gained experience in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Previously Isabelle worked as an Environmental Engineer for the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety.
BEng (Hons) FGS
James is a principal geo-environmental engineer and project manager with over eight years experience working within the geotechnical, environmental, transportation and civil engineering industries in the UK, Europe Australia and New Zealand. As a project manager he has controlled a wide variety of projects including geotechnical, multi-disciplinary and design and build contracts for a wide range of clients with team sizes up to 20. James has delivered projects for New Zealand Transport Agency, BAA and Countryside Properties Ltd.
BA MSc PhD FGS
Senior Consultant - Water Group
Dr Riley is a mathematical modeller with considerable experience in the application of quantitative techniques in the assessment of groundwater flow and contaminant transport, including the use of geostatistical and stochastic approaches. Janet has carried out numerous site-specific contaminated land (groundwater and human health) and landfill risk assessments, incorporating water balance studies, flow models and transport models. She has also developed MODFLOW models investigating water resource and aquifer hydraulics issues, including recharge assessment, impact of dewatering and contaminant transport. Janet has particular experience in the development of modelling software, including the conceptualisation of physical, chemical and biological processes, characterisation of fractured and heterogeneous porous media, and the application of robust numerical methods for the solution of the governing flow and transport equations.
Jennifer has a BSc (Hons) in Physical Geography and Natural Hazard Management where she gained experience in flood risk assessments and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Jennifer has a background in land surveying with experience in various topographical, railway and building surveys. Jennifer is part of the Sustainable Development Group and has contributed to projects related to resource development, ground source energy and groundwater-surface water interactions.
BSc MSc FGS
Jo is an MSc qualified hydrogeologist with 5 years experience in water resources hydrogeology. Jo has experience of a number of regional scale groundwater models. She has been involved with building and refining these models as well as using their outputs for hydrogeological investigations. Jo can also carry out the configuration of regional models for the Environment Agency’s National Groundwater Modelling System. In addition to groundwater modelling, Jo has experience of groundwater source investigations, including undertaking a large scale pumping test and net gain test of an augmentation scheme in Hampshire. She has also recently carried out sand production tests on a PWS borehole in Staffordshire.
BSc MSc CGeol FGS
Joe Gomme has over twenty five years’ experience in hydrogeology and water supply. Eleven of these years have been spent overseas, including work in Africa, Asia and Latin America. He has in-depth experience with government organisations, with NGOs and in private consultancy. He has set up and managed a range of projects and programmes, both in the UK and in developing countries. Joe has worked on resource investigations in the UK Chalk, Triassic Sandstone and Carboniferous Limestone aquifers, and has undertaken vulnerability assessments of water sources in Chalk, gravel and sandstone aquifers in southern England. He has been responsible for the investigation and remediation of groundwater contamination, particularly by hydrocarbons and pesticides and has more recently specialised in landfill monitoring and risk assessment for a wide variety of sites on both major and minor aquifers. He has extensive field experience of borehole drilling and installation, pump testing and water quality sampling and analysis.
Director - Land Group
Jon Cooke is an Engineering Geologist and expert in geo-environmental risk management with a background working for major international multidisciplinary consultancies and a wealth of experience in leading and managing multidisciplinary teams. Jon is a Chartered Geologist and Registered Specialist in Land Condition. He has a proven talent guiding the most marginal land towards successful development and has worked extensively with property developers and government to deliver projects in support of quarry, landfill, mining and brownfield restoration. His technical expertise is built on a strong material understanding of geology focused around the development of qualitative and quantitative ground models, the design and implementation of complex multi-objective ground investigation, geotechnical and land quality risk management. He has a passion for communicating complex ground related issues to key stakeholders and has taken part in numerous public and planning consultation processes in support of development objectives. He was one of the first UK practitioners to be registered as a Qualified Person under the CL:AIRE Definition of Waste: Development Industry Code of Practice and has completed various declarations under that scheme and advised widely on its application to development
Jonathan gained a Master of Research degree in Environmental Science from Lancaster University where he specialised in groundwater-surface water hydrology, water resources management and GIS. During this time at university he also undertook international fieldwork projects in both Denmark and the USA. Prior to obtaining his MRes. degree, Jonathan worked for a wastewater treatment company and since graduating in 2011, Jonathan worked as a technical assistant for JBA Consulting where he gained experience in performing flood risk assessments by constructing detailed hydrological models, analysing results and producing written reports. In his role at ESI, Jonathan has conducted further work on flood risk assessments, supported regional groundwater modelling projects and has developed a good knowledge of GIS software.
Kathryn recently gained a bachelor’s degree in Geology from the University of Liverpool and has experience in quantitative and qualitative report writing. She is currently studying for an MSc in hydrogeology at Birmingham university.
Kim Gray has a background in Physics and gained experience developing analytical models describing the transport of water through porous media during her PhD. Since joining ESI she has gained niche hydrogeological experience related to groundwater modelling and contaminant transport and has been required to develop semi-analytical solutions in C++. Kim has significant experience of data analysis and data management. This has been gained working with SQL based data management systems and large datasets presented in spreadsheets.
Liam has a BSc in Environmental Earth Science from Aberystwyth University where he specialised in contamination of land and water from mining activities, engineering geology, geophysics, hydrogeology and GIS. During this time at university he also undertook fieldwork for the British Geological Survey, working on the G-BASE project, defining geochemical baselines in the UK. He also assisted the BGS in defining point sources of pollutants in Glasgow. Prior to obtaining his degree, Liam gained experience at an engineering consultancy company and since graduating in 2012, Liam has worked as an assistant consultant for ESI where he is completing phase 1 contaminated land desk studies for clients by constructing detailed site conceptual models, interpreting risks to controlled waters and humans and producing written reports. In his role at ESI, Liam manages phase 1 clients, assists on Phase 2 contaminated land investigations, undertakes fieldwork including sampling and overseeing drilling rigs and has developed a good working knowledge of GIS software.
Lilith has a BSc from Cardiff University. She joined the ESI team early in 2012 and has since gained experience in a wide variety of environmental software packages. She has supported a large range of projects using skills in GIS, data management, figure production and computer programming, and has also undertaken field investigations and environmental sampling. She also supports the marketing side of the business, with her most recent project in this area being the new ESI website.
Since joining ESI in 2005, Lisa has worked on a number of water resource, contaminated land and landfill risk assessment projects. Her involvement has included the management of site investigation works (i.e. supervision of drilling, environmental sampling and field monitoring and testing); data management and interpretation, including collation of data, database management and summarising results; risk modelling and technical report writing. Lisa has been involved in ESI’s ‘Rapid Site Investigation’ initiative which is centred on rapidly assessing potential contaminated land liabilities, principally to assist in land divestment/purchases. This approach relies on rapid site investigation, data analysis, interpretation and reporting making use of streamlined data management, in-situ contaminant testing methods and preferential contact arrangements with key subcontractors.
BSc MSc DUC MBA CGeol FGS
Mark Fermor is a hydrogeologist with particular expertise in quantitative methods for resource management, contamination assessment and groundwater modelling. He has practical experience of investigating and remediating a wide range of contamination hazards in soil and groundwater and in undertaking hydrogeological risk assessments using both qualitative and quantitative methods. He has considerable experience in the simulation of groundwater flow and contaminant transport and is able to offer a highly focused and practical approach to the use of modelling techniques for the solution of environmental problems including landfill, mine dewatering, river low flow problems, contaminant plume control and remedial design. He also provides modelling support and review, and customised training and public access courses and seminars. Mark has been responsible for hydrogeological studies involving all major UK aquifers for resource investigations, water supply, contamination assessment and groundwater control. He has experience performing site assessments for evaluating the migration and impacts of landfill gas and leachate, as well as investigation and remediation of LNAPL and DNAPL compounds associated with petroleum and industrial sites. Mark has provided advice regarding regulatory compliance and water quality legislation and standards for numerous industrial and government clients. He also has extensive experience in providing expert witness services and litigation support and negotiations, and provision of environmental assessments for planning applications and appeals.
Matt Tidy is an MSc qualified hydrogeologist with experience in water resource hydrogeology, GIS based interpretation and on site testing and investigation. Matt graduated from the University of Birmingham MSc in Hydrogeology in 2010. Since joining ESI he has been involved in a wide variety of projects including working on Phase 2 low flow assessments, pumping test supervision and analysis for water supply wells, site investigation and drilling on contaminated land sites, desk studies for feasibility of ground source energy schemes and reporting for landfill operators.
BA MSc CGeol
Director - Water Group
Mike Streetly is a very experienced hydrogeologist and project director/manager who is well known throughout the industry for his skills and experience in water resource assessment. He has strong numerical skills which have been applied to solving a wide variety of hydrogeological problems. He also has extensive practical experience, particularly in the design, installation and operation of hydrometric networks and pumping tests. He has made a number of presentations at the Geological Society as well as to the extractive industry and has published papers on a wide variety of topics. He has served as a member of the committee of the Hydrogeological Group of the Geological Society and is currently Associate Editor (Hydrogeology) of the Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology. During the 20+ years of his professional experience Mike has been responsible for water resource studies in all the major UK aquifers including a substantial number of regional groundwater model studies for the Environment Agency as well as more site specific studies for most of the major water companies. He has also had extensive experience of developing a clear understanding of hydrogeological conditions in drift deposits and minor aquifers through his work for the extractive industry. He has been project manager for many hydrogeological impact assessments for the extractive industry including several of the largest limestone quarries in the UK. He has directed projects assessing the risk of groundwater flooding and has acted as an expert witness in matters related to natural mineral waters.
BSc MSc FGS
Paul Daily is a fully qualified hydrogeologist and project manager with over 8 years professional experience since graduating from the University of Birmingham. Since joining ESI Paul has input on a wide range of water resource projects, including conceptualisation of regional and local scale hydrogeological systems, and developing and implementing numerical groundwater models for both the Environment Agency and water companies. Paul also has extensive field skills and has input to several large field work programmes.
BSc, PhD, CGeol, FGS
Technical Director - Sustainability
Paul Ellis is a very experienced hydrogeologist and project manager/director. He has a wide range of applied experience as well as a period of university based research. He graduated in Applied Geology in 1990 and worked on British Nuclear Fuels’ Geological Investigation into possible underground nuclear waste storage at Sellafield. He then worked as an exploration and mining geologist in different parts of the world. In 1999 he joined the Hydrogeology Research Group at Birmingham University and completed a doctorate in hydrogeology on groundwater and surface water interactions, followed by a research fellowship. Since 2004 he has worked as a hydrogeological consultant responsible for specialist technical input to a wide range of projects, preparation of proposals, project management and business development.
BSc Geol, FGS
Consultant - Land Group
Peter Bemment is an experienced geologist with extensive experience working in all fields of the environmental consultancy industry. Starting out as an associate for ESI conducting contaminated land investigations, Peter has had technical input in diverse projects such as groundwater modelling, landfill regulation and low flow studies. Clients have included local authorities, the petroleum and chemical industry, private property owners, landfill operators, the environment agency and water companies. Peter is a qualified first aider, has completed Managing Safely (IOSH approved course) and has a current water hygiene card.
BSc, PhD, LLM, DMS, FGS
Phil Aldous formerly Head of Environment and Quality Regulation at Thames Water joined ESI as a Board Director to support the continued growth of the business and to lead the development of the regional, south east office in Reading. Phil is respected in the water industry as an experienced environmental manager, and project director who understands the issues facing water companies and the broader environment. His expertise gained over almost 30 years experience of the UK water Industry covers water resource management, pollution issues and regulatory and compliance management.
Rob Gordon is a skilled geologist and project manager with over 16 years’ experience in industry and consultancy. Having graduated from the University of Liverpool, he joined BNFL in 1995 as a geologist in support of the development of nuclear waste disposal operational and post-closure safety cases and on contaminated land risk assessments. Since joining ESI in 2006, Rob has managed and provided technical leadership of numerous contaminated land and landfill risk assessment projects for clients across a range of business sectors, including utility companies, waste operators, developers and local authorities. He has extensive experience of geological and hydrogeological investigations including Phase 1 preliminary risk assessments, site investigation and data collation, conceptual model development, risk assessment and reporting.
BSc MSc CGeol
Technical Director - Landfill
Rob is experienced in all aspects of hydrogeological assessment, including contaminated land, landfill and water resources. He has a comprehensive knowledge of hydrogeological investigations including site investigation and data collation, conceptual model development, modelling and reporting. Rob has specialised in landfill risk assessment and groundwater detailed quantitative risk assessment and has an extensive track record in completing successful projects for new sites under the Environmental Permitting Regulations (EPR), existing sites converting to EPR and old sites requiring Regulation 15, Part IIA, etc. risk assessments. He is fully conversant with the evolving environmental permitting regulations and is current with the regulatory guidance being produced for this sector. Rob has been successful in negotiating with clients and regulators to ensure that risk assessments are completed to the satisfaction of all parties. He has also managed and provided technical direction for small and large scale water resource projects and other quantitative and qualitative hydrogeological projects. Rob has worked previously in the radioactive waste industry where he has been responsible for the conceptualisation of hydrogeological models and numerical simulations that have been used in support of authorisations by the Environment Agency.
Rosanna has an MSc in Environmental Management and Conservation and has used data analysis techniques to assist on several projects at ESI. These include water quality analysis, low flow assessments and catchment management investigations. She has gained considerable experience in the effective use Geographical Information Systems (GIS).
Samson Collier recently gained a Master’s degree in Environmental Water Management at Cranfield University where he specialised in catchment management, nitrate and phosphate modelling as well as agricultural mitigation measures. Throughout his masters degree he volunteered for Canal and River Trust conducting discharge surveys, collecting data, mapping on to GIS and report writing. He also conducted research for Severn Trent Water looking at reducing phosphorus levels in the Mease catchment as part of a two month group project. His thesis specialised in critically analysing a model called Farmscoper and studying attitudes of farmers towards the various mitigation measures proposed by the model.
BSc MSc PhD
Dr Arthur is a hydrogeologist with research experience and a first class honours degree in geophysical sciences. Simon has particular interest in groundwater modelling and the quantification of chemical and physical processes in groundwater systems. His research work focused on the integration of chemical equilibrium processes with a finite element solute transport code that has provided considerable experience in model and code development, model verification and validation, in addition to model application. Simon has worked on numerous water resource, contaminated land and ground source energy projects. Groundwater modelling experience includes a review of Thames Region source protection zone and configuration and testing of several regional groundwater models as part of the Environment Agency NGMS application. He has developed groundwater flow and transport models for the radioactive disposal site at Drigg, West Cumbria and conducted saline upconing and intrusion modelling in the Permo-Triassic sandstone aquifer in the North West and the Chalk aquifers in London and on the south coast. Simon has undertaken geological and hydrogeolgical feasibility studies for ground source energy schemes and undertaken modelling of closed and open loop systems, this has included thermal modelling of the long term impact and sustainability of large groundwater cooling schemes beneath London.
MA MSc PhD FGS CGeol
Technical Director - Water Group
Dr Buss is a Chartered Geologist, a very experienced hydrogeologist and project manager with wide-ranging expertise in the fields of water resources assessment, groundwater flooding, groundwater chemistry interpretation and modelling, contaminant transport modelling and risk assessment for contaminated land and landfills. Steve has considerable experience of the UK's hydrogeology and has managed and conducted major groundwater resource assessments in the Permo-Triassic Sandstone, Chalk, Magnesian Limestone and Corallian Limestone. These studies included conceptualisation of the groundwater systems, interpretation of groundwater chemistry distributions, computation of water balances and predictive numerical modelling. Dr Buss leads ESI's groundwater flood risk assessment and mapping projects. Many had a strong R&D focus and have included development of a groundwater emergence mapping tool, and early warning system for the Environment Agency; plus local assessments of flood risk. Dr Buss has contributed to regulatory approaches to the Water Framework Directive, particularly with regard to qualitative aspects of groundwater, having written guidance for England and Wales and for Ireland, on characterising and reporting groundwater chemistry.
Software Sales and Courses Manager
Susannah has become an expert in a wide range of data processing applications and a range of GIS packages. She is an experienced technician with a strong background in data management and figure production. Susannah has managed the reporting process for major contaminated land and remediation projects alongside data processing for hydrogeological studies and application of GIS to data processing and visualisation. Susannah is also the Course and Software Sales Manager delivering on the marketing and sales operation in order to achieve maximum sales and profitability. Susannah has diversified into the role of Office Manager responsible for the management of resources and staff as to achieve effective and efficient delivery on business support tasks to optimise business operations suitable to achieve the company's objectives.
Tim has several years of hydrogeological experience both within the regulatory industry (Environment Agency) and private sector. He has worked as a GIS analyst developing flood risk maps and as a geotechnical engineer across East Anglia before joining the Environment Agency Wales where he worked in groundwater & contaminated land and water resources planning. Tim has experience in water company management plans, drought planning and groundwater quality.